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Crystallization Conditions for VIPERdb Entries

Crystallization Crystal Info Space Groups Crystal Contacts

Virus Name

Crystal conditions/Reference

Adeno-Associated Virus Crystallization was by vapor diffusion with AAV at approx. 8.5 mg/ml in 25% glycerol, equilibrated against a reservoir also containing 4-5% polyethylene glycol 6000.
Reference: 1
Bacteriophage Φ-X 174 Crystals grown with hanging drop vapor diffusion method using PEG 8000 as precipitant. The reservoir solution contained 90 to 93 mM bis-TRIS methane at pH 6.8 and 1.5 to 2.0% ((W/V) PEG 8000. The hanging drop contained a mixture of 5 µl of virus solution (40 µg of virus) and 5 µl of reservoir solution. The reservoir was filled with 500 µl of solution. The hanging drops were kept at room temperature for 1 to 2 weeks and then transferred to the cold room at 4 ° C for another 2 or more weeks.
Reference: 8
Bacteriophage FR (FR) Crystals grown by hanging drop vapor diffusion method with 10 µl drops containing 25 mg protein/ml and 10% saturated ammonium sulfate in 50 mM MOPS (pH 7.5) 0.02% NaN3 equilibrated against 35% saturated ammonium sulfate in the same buffer system.
Reference: 3
Bacteriophage G4 The procapsid particles were crystallized at room temperature using the hanging drop vapor diffusion method. The reservoir solution contained 2.0% (W/V) PEG 8000 and 0.2 M KCl in 50 mM bis-TRIS (pH 6.8) buffer, over which was suspended a hanging drop of 5 µl of reservoir solution. Large amount of precipitation were observed forming around the growing crystals, which started to appear approx. two weeks after crystal trays were set up. It was shown, using SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, that during the crystallization process the scaffolding proteins B and D dissociated from the procapsid particles and precipitated, leaving the degraded particles to crystallize.
Reference: 4
Bacteriophage GA Protein Capsid (GA) The crystallization experiments were carried out in hanging drops by the vapor diffusion technique at room temperature (20 ° C). The solution in the crystallization drop was prepared by mixing 10 µl of phage solution with 10 µl of 5% ammonium sulfate in 0.04 M TRIS-HCl (pH 8.0), 0.15 M NaCl and 0.02% NaN3. The droplets were equilibrated against 0.9 M NaCl in 0.04 M TRIS-HCl (pH 8.0). Crystals with a size of 0.6 mm were obtained in three weeks.
Reference: 5
Bacteriophage MS2 (MS2) Crystallization experiments were performed in hanging drops by vapor diffusion technique at 37 ° C, 19 ° C and 4 ° C. Crystals were grown in 20 µl droplets applied to the inside of the lid of sterile plastic Petri dish. The virus solution contained 1.0% (W/V) MS2, 0.2 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.4) 1.5% (W/V) NaN3. The droplets were equilibrated against 0.4 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.4).
Reference: 7
Bacteriophage PP7 Crystals were obtained under two different conditions using the hanging-drop technique. In both cases, 5 µl of phage solution (7 mg/ml) was mixed with an equal volume of reservoir solution. Crystal type A (irregular shape) was obtained using 0.2 M magnesium acetate, 0.1 M sodium cacodylate pH 6.5 and 30%(V/V) 2-methyl-4,4-pentanediol at room temperature. Crystal types B and C (rhombic shape) were obtained using 0.1 M sodium citrate buffer pH 5.6 and 3.0 M 1,6-hexanediol at 310 K. Crystal form A grew to a maximum dimension of 1 mm in about two weeks. Crystal forms B and C grew to a size of 1.8 mm in about six weeks.
Reference: 9
Bacteriophage Qβ Capsid (QB) Crystals grown by hanging drop vapor diffusion method at room temperature. The solution in the crystallization well was prepared by mixing 12 µl of virus solution (10 mg/ml) with 8 µl of 2% PEG 6000 in 0.05 M TRIS/HCl pH 7.4, 0.2 M NaCl, 0.1 mM MgSO4, 0.01 mM EDTA and 0.02% (W/V) NaN3. The droplets were equilibrated against 0.4 M NaCl.
Reference: 10
Black Beetle Virus (BBV) Crystals grown at 20 ° C using hanging drop vapor diffusion method. A virus solution was prepared at 8 mg/ml using sodium phosphate buffer in a pH range of 6.9 to 7.2. The reservoir solution contained 0.55 M ammonium sulfate in 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer adjusted to the same pH as the solution containing the virus. 5 µl of virus solution were mixed with 5 µl of reservoir solution and the mixture was equilibrated with 1 ml of the reservoir solution. The crystals would grow more rapidly if the reservoir and virus solution were initially made 1 and 0.5% (W/V) respectively in PEG 8000.
Reference: 11
Bluetongue Virus Crystallization trials (for BTV 1SA) were carried out by vapor diffusion (sitting drop) using microbridges supplied by Crystal Microsystems. The precipitant solution in the reservoir ranged from 11 to 16% saturated ammonium sulfate in 0.1 M TRIS-HCl buffer, pH 8.0. In some trials 15% ethylene glycol was also included in the reservoir solution. Usually 10 µl of treated cores were mixed with 5 µl reservoir solution. Regular crystals grow with the morphology of half rhombic dodecahedra, to a diameter of 0.3 mm in approx. 4 weeks and then more slowly to a maximum diameter of 0.8 mm. The largest crystals, though fewer in number, were obtained together with noncrystalline aggregates, when ethylene glycol was incorporated in the reservoir solution.
Reference: 12
Bovine Enterovirus VG-5-27 Purified virus was suspended at a concentration of 10 mg/ml in 20 mM TRIS.HCl (pH 7.6) containing 50 mM NaH2PO4 and 0.75% (V/V) saturated ammonium sulfate. Then the suspended virus was placed in 10 µl dialysis buttons, sealed with untreated Visking tubing and submerged in mother liquor consisting of 100 mM NaH2PO4 (pH 7.6) and various quantities of saturated ammonium sulfate in the range 20% to 35% (V/V). Crystallizations were incubated at 20 ° C. all solutions contained sodium azide at trace concentrations to inhibit microbiological growth during the experiments.
Reference: 13
Canine Parvovirus Both CPV full and empty particles were crystallized using the hanging drop method in TRIS-HCl buffer at pH 7.5 containing 0.75% PEG 8000 and 8 mM CaCl2.
Reference: 14
Carnation Mottle Virus Crystals were obtained in 40 µl droplets of 0.1 M TRIS-HCl buffer solution containing 40-50 mg/ml of virus and 10% saturated ammonium sulfate. The equilibrating solution consisted of 0.1 M TRIS-maleic (mal)/NaOH, pH 5.03 with 25% saturated ammonium sulfate. Either 1.7 heptandiol or PEG 300 were added to lessen the number of pellets.
Reference: 15
Cocksfoot Mottle Virus Crystals were obtained under two different conditions using the hanging drop technique. In both cases, 5 µl of virus solution (10 mg/ml) were mixed with an equal volume of bottom solution. Crystal type A (irregular, cucumber-like shape) was obtained using 0.25 M sodium succinate buffer at pH 3.3 and 5% PEG 8000 as an additive. Crystal type B (prism) was obtained using 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 5.5, and 2 M NaCl as precipitant. Crystal form A belonged to orthorhobic space group (: structure reported) and crystal from B belonged to tetragonal space group.
Reference: 16
Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) Crystallized by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method. The reservoir buffer was 0.3 M disodium succinate, 0.3 M succinic acid, 1 mM sodium azide, 3.7-4.0% PEG 8000, pH 3.3. Each droplet consisted of 5-25 µl of virus at 20-50 mg/ml in storage buffer, added to an equal volume of reservoir buffer. The dishes were sealed and allowed to equilibrate at room temperature in darkness against 15 ml of reservoir buffer.
Reference: 17
Cowpea Mosaic Virus Cubic crystals displaying rhombic dodecahedral morphology were obtained by vapor diffusion. The reservoir solution was 0.4 M ammonium sulfate, 2% PEG 8000 (W/V), and 0.05 M potassium phosphate at pH 7.0. The virus solution was prepared at 35 mg/ml in 0.05 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.0.
Reference: 18
Coxsackievirus B3 Coat Protein Crystals grown at room temperature using the sitting drop vapor-diffusion method. The sitting drop contained 10 µl of 5mg/ml in 50 mM MES buffer, pH 6.0 with 0.75 M NaCl and the well contained 1 ml 2M ammonium sulfate.
Reference: 19
Cricket Paralysis Virus Crystals were grown by hangingdrop vapor-diffusion at room temperature. Drops consisted of 1 µl of well solution plus 1 µl virus at a concentration of 10 mg/ml in 200 mM NaHPO4, pH 7.2. The well solution was 8% (W/V) MPEG 5000, 50 mM lithium sulfate, 50 mM MES, pH 6.0.
Reference: 20
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF NORWALK VIRUS CAPSID Crystals of the particles suitable for x-ray structure determination were grown by the hanging drop method with 0.5 M ammonium phosphate (pH 4.8) as the precipitant.
Reference: 82
Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) Crystals were grown using vapor diffusion and the sitting-drop method. The reservoir contained 2 M sodium formate, 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.6), and 0.05 to 0.125% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000. To the sitting drop, 10 µl of this solution was added to 8 µl of the virus solution and 2 µl of a 24 mM (10 times the critical micelle concentration) solution of CYMAL-5 (cyclohexyl-pentyl--D-maltoside) was then added. The detergent improved crystal size by decreasing the number of nucleation sites. It did not improve diffraction resolution. To prepare the crystals for freezing, drops that did not have usable crystals were pooled and centrifuged to remove precipitate. This solution was then used to make 10, 20, and 30% solutions of PEG 400. The crystals were transferred to the increasing PEG solutions, with 0.5-h incubations at each step. The crystals were then frozen in a liquid nitrogen stream that was at 110 K.
Reference: 21
Desmodium Yellow Mottle Virus (DYMV) Purified DYMV at a concentration of 3 mg/ml was used to screen for crystals using Crystal Screen and Crystal Screen II (Hampton Research, Laguna Hills, CA). Trials were deployed using Cryschem Plates (Charles Supper Co., Natick, MA) covered with clear tape and maintained at room temperature. Each trial used a 0.5 ml reservoir and 3 µl each of the buffer and the DYMV concentrate. Small cuboidal crystals were observed after one month with 2.0 M sodium formate (NaCHO2, Fluka), 0.1 M sodium acetate (NaC2H3O2) at pH 4.6. By optimizing the conditions, large crystals, up to 0.7 mm on a side, were grown using either the sitting or the hanging-drop method (McPherson, 1999). The pH optimum was found to be 4.8 in both cases, while the optimum sodium formate concentration ranged from 1.8-2.5 M for the hanging-drop, or 2.0-2.2 M for the sitting-drop method. Crystals were first observed after one month but continued to grow up to six months. An average drop contained three to seven crystals. The cubic crystals were robust and easily manipulated with little damage from handling.
Reference: 23
Echovirus 1 (FAROUK Strain) Virus was crystallized by microdialysis against 10mM PIPES, 25mM CaCl2, 25mM MgCl2, 2.5% PEG 400, pH 6.0 at 4 Crystals grown at 20 ° C.
Reference: 24
Echovirus 11 (Strain 207) EV11-207 stocks were concentrated to approx. 10 mg/ml and crystallized by equilibrating 2 µl sitting drops (1 µl of virus plus 1 µl of mother liquot sealed in Linbro plates. Crystals suitable X-ray diffraction data grew in 2.0 M ammonium sulfate.
Reference: 25
Feline Panleukopenia Virus Useful crystals were obtained for both full and empty particles at room temperature, with PEG 8000 as precipitant. The reservoir solution contained 0.75% (W/V) PEG 8000 and 8 mM CaCl2 in 10 mM TRIS-HCl (pH 7.5) buffer, over which was suspended a hanging drop of 5 µl of virus diluted by 5 µl of reservoir solution. Crystals grew in a period of 2 weeks or longer.
Reference: 26
Feline Panleukopenia Virus A crystal of FPV was grown in 20 mM Bis-Tris-HCl (pH 6.2), in the presence of 5 mM EDTA.
Reference: 27
Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Purified virus was crystallized either by dialysis in 5 to 100 µl of ammonium sulfate in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.6), containing a trace of NaN3 as a preservative or in vapor diffusion chambers in which the virus droplet had been diluted with an equal volume of the ammonium sulfate solution in the reservoir. All crystallizations were carried out at the room temperature.
Reference: 29
Human Hepatitis B Viral Capsid T=3 and T=4 capsids were crystallized by the vapor diffusion method. Crystals of T=4 capsids were grown from 100 mM NaHCO3 pH 9.5, 100 mM NaCl, 250-350 mM KCl, 9.0-9.5% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether 5000 (PEG-MME) and 10% 2-propanol diluted 1:1 with freshly prepared capsids (10 mg/ml in 50 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 100 mM KCl). Crystals grew to maximum dimensions of 0.7 x 0.4 x 0.3 mm. Crystals of T=3 capsids grew in 2 weeks from 100 mM NaHCO3 pH 9.5, 100 mM NaCl, 250 mM LiCl, 8-8.5% PEG-MME, 10% 2-propanol. Crystals of T=3 capsids diffracted to aprrox. 8 Å; crystals of T=4 diffracted to 4 Å resolution.
Reference: 30
Human Papilloma Virus 16 L1 Capsid Deletion mutant of HPV16 L1 lacking in the N-terminal 10 residues yielded good crystals in the presence of 7.5% PEG in 0.2 M NaOAc buffer (pH 4.5). Among the several crystal forms obtained, the space group of the form used in the structure determination was P213
Reference: 31
Human Rhinovirus 16 The hanging drop vapor diffusion method was employed in the crystallization of HRV 16. The resevoir solution (0.5 ml in volume) contained PEG 8000 (0.5-1.5%) in buffer. A 5 µl drop of virus solution, concentrated to 8-10 mg/ml, was diluted with 5 µl of reservoir solution. The drop was placed on a plastic coverslip which was used to seal the well. Conditions for crytsallization varied with respect to CaCl2 concentration present in the well solution (5-20 mM). A key factor in the crystallization of HRV 16 was the use of NaCl in the buffer.
Reference: 33
Human Rhinovirus 2 HRV Serotype 2 crystallized in three different morphologies using the hanging drop vapor diffusion method. Typically 2-5 µl of virus solution (5 mg/ml) in 50 mM TRIS-HCl (pH 7.4) was mixed with an equal or smaller volume of reservoir solution. The cyrstals with prismatic morphology and dimensions up to 0.3 x 0.2 x 0.15 mm diffracted to high resolution (beyond 1.8 Å). The crystals were grown at room temperature and pH 7.5 using 0.4 M ammonium sulfate and 0.1 M sodium/potassium phosphate.
Reference: 35
Human Rhinovirus 3 The hanging drop method was used to crystallize HRV Serotype 3. The reservoir solution contained 10 mM CaCl2 and 0.75% PEG 8000 in a 0.25 M HEPES/0.75 M NaCl/pH 7.2 buffer. The hanging drop contained 5 µl of 10 mg/ml virus mixed with 5 µl of reservoir solution.
Reference: 36
Human Rhinovirus Serotype 14 Crystals were grown at room temperature in vapor diffusion cells that were coated with Dow Corning 4 compound to reduce nucleation and to prevent crystals from adhering to the glass surface of the wells. A solution of ammonium sulfate (x% saturated) containing 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 and 1 mM sodium azide was added to an equal volume of a solution containing R14 virus at y mg/ml (in which 2 <   y < 20 mg/ml) such that the product xy was numerically between 5 and 10 units. The solution was put into a well of the diffusion chamber and equilibrated against ammonium sulfate at around 2.5% saturation. Crystals then grew up to 0.6 mm in length within a few days to a week.
Reference: 32
Human Rhinovirus Serotype 1A 50 µl of 3 to 5 mg virus/ml was placed into micro-dialysis button, sealed with membrane and dialyzed at 6 ° C against 0.15 M ammonium formate adjusted to pH 7.35. Long hexagonal shaped crystals were obtained within 2 weeks.
Reference: 34
L-A Virus Crystals were obtained in the presence of 10% ethylene glycol, 3% PEG 8000, 1.0 M LiCl, 0.1 M Hepes, pH 7.0 and 10 mg/ml L-A virus.
Reference: 37
Mengo Encephalomyocarditis Virus An orthorhombic crystals were prepared by hanging drop vapor diffusion method with 2.8% PEG 8000 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 in the reservoir with an initial virus concentration of 5 mg/ml and 1.4% PEG 8000 in the same buffer in the hanging drop. The crystals grew in 1-2 days at room temperature to a maximum dimension of 0.8 mm.
Reference: 38
Mice Minute Virus (MVM), Strain I Crystals were grown using hanging drop vapor diffusion method with conditions similar to those used for CPV. The reservoir solution contained 0.75% (W/V) PEG 8000 and 8 mM CaCl2.2H2O in 10 mM hanging drop produced by mixing 5 ml of virus solution (10 mg/ml) in 10 mM TRIS-HCl at pH 7.5 with 5 µl of reservoir solution. Crystals grew to a maximum dimension of 0.4 mm in about 4 to 8 weeks.
Reference: 39
Murine Polyoma Virus Crystals were grown from sodium sulfate using hanging drop method and salanized coverslips. The 2 µl drops contained 6-8 mg/ml virus, 10 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 0.25-0.3 M sodium sulfate and 2.5-5.0% (V/V) glycerol; the reservoir contained 0.55-0.6 M soidium sulfate, 10 mM HEPES pH 7.5 and 5-10% glycerol. Harvest buffer contained 0.65 M sodium sulfate, 50 mM HEPES pH 7.5 and 10% glycerol. For oligosaccharide complex formation, the crystals were soaked in harvest buffer 24 h prior to data collection.
Reference: 40
NODAMURA VIRUS 10 - 15 µl of 7mg/ml of virus in phosphate buffer mixed with one volume of citrate buffer and equilibrated verses 20 ml of citrate buffer (0.24 - 0.28 M sodium citrate, pH adjusted to 6.0 with acetic acid, or 0.24 M potassium citrate pH 6.0, both with 0.1% beta-octyl glucopyranoside). Crystals grown from vapor diffusion using sitting drop method.
Reference: 41
Pariacoto Virus (PAV) PaV was crystallized by the hanging drop vapor diffusion method at room temperature. The reservoir was 1ml of 75 mM Li2SO4, 5mM CaCl2, and 4% (W/V) PEG 8000 in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5. The droplet was a mixture of 1 µl reservoir solution and 1 µl virus sample at a virus concentration of aprox. 20 mg ml-1 in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5. Crystals appeard within 4-5 days.
Reference: 43
PARVOVIRUS (DENSOVIRUS) FROM GALLERIA MELLONELLA 10 mM TRIS pH7.5, 1mM CaCl, 1mM MgCl, 0.1M NaCl, 5% PEG 8000, (soaked in 25% glycerol for 4 hours as cryo-protectant)
Reference: 22
Physalis Mottle Virus (PhMV) No information available
Reference: 44
Poliovirus (Type 1, Mahoney Strain) No information available
Poliovirus Type 1 (Mahoney Strain) No information available
Reference: 91
Poliovirus Type 1 (Mahoney Strain) Empty Capsid Crystals of empty capsids were grown by dialyzing 5-15 µl samples of empty capsid (approx. 15 mg/ml) initially in 0.8 M NaCl, PMC7 ( 10 mM PIPES, 5 mM MgCl2 at 4 ° C.
Reference: 45
Poliovirus Type 3 (Sabin Strain) No information available
Poliovirus Type2/Sch48973 Complex Crystals were grown at room temperature using a modified version of the hanging drop vapor diffusion method. The reservoir solution (0.5 ml total volume) contained varying amounts of PEG 8000 (0.9-1.4%) and lithium sulfate (100-250 mM). The virus sample, 2-3 µl of a 5 mg/ml solution, was placed on a plastic coverslip and mixed with an equal volume of the reservoir solution. The well was sealed with the coverslip using vacuum grease except for a small leak that was left between the coverslip and the well. After2-4 days, crystals approx. 0.1mm x 0.2mm x 0.1 mm began to appear, at which time the leak was sealed with vacuum grease and the crystals were allowed to grow to their maximum size of 0.2 mm x 0.35 mm x 0.2 mm. Without the leak, the crystallization drops would either form precipitate or remain clear for months. The leak left between coverslip and the well was a key factor in the production of crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis.
Reference: 46
Porcine Parvovirus Crystals were grown at 18°C in 20 mM Hepes-NaOH (pH 6.5), containing 8 mM CaCl, 0.05% (w/v) sodium azide and with 1.0% or 1.5% PEG 8000 as a precipitant. The crystals grew as thin plates over a period of several weeks to a maximum size of approximately 0.2 mm x 0.02 mm x 0.01 mm.
Reference: 47
Reovirus Core For crystallization, Reovirus cores (6 mg/ml in 0.5 M NaCl, 0-0.3 M NaOAc, 50 mM MgCl2, 50 mM Hepes, pH 7) were equilibrated against 1 M NaCl, 0-0.6 M NaOAc, 100 mM HEPES, pH 7.0. Crystals, 150-200 µm at their largest dimensions, grew in 9-12 months. They were transferred to a solution containing 0.8 M NaOAc (but otherwise identical to the well solution) and mounted in capillaries.
Reference: 49
Rice Dwarf Virus No information available
Reference: 50
Rice Yellow Mottle Virus The crystallization was carried out by vapor diffusion and the reservoir solution was 50 mM sodium citrate, pH 3.0, 200 mM lithium sulfate, and 3.6% (W/V) PEG 8000. The virus solution was concentrated to 36 mg/ml.
Reference: 51
Satellite Panicum Mosaic Virus Cubic crystals grown by vapor diffusion methods using glass depression plates in plastic sandwich boxes at 4 ° C over a period of about one month. The reservoir solution was 37% saturated ammonium sulfate in water. The droplets were composed of 10 µl of a 10 mg/ml virus solution (buffered with 20 mM potassium phosphate) plus 10 µl of the reservoir.
Reference: 52
SATELLITE TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS/RNA COMPLEX Protein was four times recrystallized from bulk solution by addition AF ammonium sulfate to 15% saturation. Space crystals were grown by liquid-liquid diffusion in a microgravity environment over 12 days aboard IML-I mission of the US space shuttle.
Reference: 53
Satellite Tobacco Necrosis Virus Crystals grown from solutions containing 10-12 g of virus/l (or 7-8 g of virus/l and 0.4% (W/V) PEG 6000) in 1mM Mg(2+), 50mM sodium phosphate pH 6.5.
Reference: 54
Sesbania Mosaic Virus (SMV) The purified virus was crystallized by vapor diffusion in depression slides. Best crystals were obtained by precipitating the virus (30 mg/ml in 0.1 M sodium acetate (pH 5.6)) with 15% to 20% saturated ammonium sulfate in the inner well and 30% saturated in the outer well. Addition of divalent salts had pronounced effect on crystal growth.
Reference: 55
Simian Virus 40 Crystals were grown at 25 ° C (by hanging drop technique) from a solution containing approx. half-saturated ammonium sulfate buffered with either TRIS(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane or ammonia to pH 7.0 to 7.5, 10 mM Mg(2+) and 0.5 mM Ca(2+). The concentration of virus was 5 to 10 mg/ml. Morphologically the crystals were cubes.
Reference: 56
Southern Bean Mosaic Virus (SBMV) The virus was crystallized in vials from 0.95 M ammonium sulfate with an initial virus concentration of 20 mg/ml.
Reference: 57
STRUCTURE OF THE DSDNA BACTERIOPHAGE HK97 MATURE EMPTY CAPSID The Head II sample at 40-70 mg/ml (4 µl) was mixed with an equal volume of precipitant : 50 mM citrate, pH 5.0, 0.85 M ammonium sulfate, 1.5% PEG 8000. The mixture was drawn into a capillary (1.0-2.0 mm diameter); mineral oil was injected at both ends to prevent evaporation, and the capillary ends were sealed with wax.
Reference: 6
Swine Vesicular Disease Virus SVDV (strain UKG/27/72) was purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the resultant material (at a concentration of 10 mg/ml) was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapor diffusion method by mixing equal volumes with the reservoir solution containing 15 to 25% saturated ammonium sulfate in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.6). The "toblerone" morphology crystals were of dimensions 0.1x0.0.1x0.2 mm3
Reference: 58
Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (BeAn Strain) Crystals grown by hanging drop vapor diffusion method with PEG 3350 in 0.02 M boric acid buffer (pH 8.5).
Reference: 59
Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (DA Strain) Concentrated samples of virus (10 mg/ml) were crystallized at 4 ° C by microdialysis verses progressively lower concentrations of NaCl in 10 mM Na PIPES buffer (pH 7.0-7.3).
Reference: 60
Tobacco Necrosis Virus (TNV) Crystals grown by dialysis method using microdialysis cells by both lowering pH and increasing salt concentration. Virus solution was dialyzed against 0.4 M sodium phosphate buffer with the pH adjusted to 6.0. Sometimes thin plate like crystals were produced with the dodecahedral crystals in the same dialysis cells. the thin plate like crystals were dissolved by dialyzing against 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). When the cells were transferred to the crystallization buffer, dodecahedral crystals were usually produced.
Reference: 61
Tobacco Ringspot Virus Virus was crystallized using hanging drop setting from reservoir buffer containing 2-3% (W/V) PEG 3350, 1mM sodium azide and 0.125 M potassium phosphate, pH 6.5
Reference: 62
Tomato Aspermy Virus Crystals were grown by vapor diffusion using sitting drops in Cryschem plates (Hampton Research, Laguna Niguel, CA) sealed with clear plastic tape. Drops contained 10 µl of virus suspension mixed with 10 µl of precipitant in vapor equilibrium with 1 ml of precipitant in the reservoir. Crystals grew to full size in about 2 weeks.
Reference: 63
Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus (TBSV) The virus was crystallized by adding saturated ammonium sulfate to the virus (approx. 30 mg/ml in water) until the solution just remained turbid. The final concentration of ammonium sulfate at this endpoint was approx. 0.5 M but varied from preparation to preparation. The solution was distributed into stoppered vials and stored at 4 ° C. At this temperature the turbidity vanished and single crystals grew after a period of weeks or months. Seeding accelerated the process, but several months were necessary to obtain large crystals (0.3 to 0.5 mm).
Reference: 64
Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus (TYMV) Crystals grown using hanging drop vapor diffusion technique. The reservoir solution contained between 1.09 and 1.17 M ammonium phosphate and 100mM MES buffer with a final pH of 3.7-5.5. 5 µl of virus solution (16 mg/ml) 5 µl of reservoir solution composed of the micro-drops yeilded large crystals at 25 ° C.
Reference: 65

by Padmaja Natarajan
Last Modified : Thu Jan 3 18:31:05 PST 2002


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